Citicoline Sodium: Brain Health Supplements

If you want to maintain or improve your mental function, taking Citicoline Sodium brain health supplements is the best way to do that, as you’ll learn in this guide.

Citicoline is a natural avenue of providing the brain’s energy-producing regions with sustenance. Clinically tested for efficacy, Citicoline Sodium provides an effective form of this natural chemical that provides the brain with the energy needed to remain focused.*

Citicoline is known as a nootropic which is pure, vegetarian, and allergen-free. So look for Citicoline Sodium on the ingredient panel of SANESolution’s favorite supplement – Vitaae, to help keep your mental edge.* Clinically studied to support mental energy, focus, and attention, it is potent brain health nutrient!

Citicoline Sodium Guide Table of Contents:

  1. Introduction
  2. Benefits & Superior Form
  3. Citicoline Sodium vs Alpha Gpc
  4. Ingredients
  5. Side Effects
  6. Best Way To Get CDP Choline
  7. Dosage
  8. Supplements For Brain
  9. Best Supplement On the Market Today
  10. Citicoline Research
  11. Vitaee With Citicoline Sodium Reviews
  12. Citations & References

Before discussing Citicoline Sodium, it’s important to define brain health.  

The American Heart Association defines a healthy brain as one that “has the blood flow required for peak performance.” 1 That’s true. But adequate blood flow is only one factor in having a healthy brain.

Nutrition plays a big role in brain health, too. For instance, research shows that approximately one serving of leafy green vegetables per day may help slow age-related cognitive decline. Similar results were found with the consumption of folate-rich foods.2 (Green leafy vegetables are rich sources of folate.)

A higher intake of berries has also been shown to reduce age-related cognitive decline. 3

But there’s only one problem: most people don’t eat nearly enough of the brain-healthy foods known to support mental function. And that’s why taking Citicoline Sodium brain-health supplements is so important.

potent brain health nutrient

Brain Health Breakthrough: Citicoline Sodium®

Citicoline Sodium is clinically proven to provide your brain with the energy it needs to function properly. 

Citicoline — also known as CDB choline or cytidine diphosphate choline  — is a naturally occurring nutrient found in every cell of your body. It is particularly important for cognitive function.

Research has shown that when citicoline is taken orally, it is broken down into choline and cytidine, and the cytidine is converted into uridine. Both choline and cytidine are then rapidly absorbed through the intestines and circulated throughout the body, including the brain.4

Let’s discuss the brain-boosting properties of uridine and choline that are provided by citicoline.

Uridine helps neurons communicate with each other, which is essential for proper brain function. Studies indicate that uridine, when administered with DHA and choline, can enhance cognitive and neurotransmitter function.


structure of Uridine

Clinical studies have even shown it to improve memory in those with mild Alzheimer’s disease.5 (Uridine, DHA, and choline are precursors of the phosphatides in neuronal membranes, which likely explains their combined brain-boosting effects.) 6

And choline…well, there are few nutrients more powerful than choline for enhancing cognitive function. Choline is the precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is one of the most important neurotransmitters 7

Acetylcholine is involved in both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. It regulates cognitive function, which is probably why a higher choline intake has been shown to enhance cognitive performance in clinical research studies. 8

Choline is an essential nutrient that the body needs, yet it cannot make the amount it requires. You must get choline through your diet. But most people don’t eat enough choline-rich foods, such as liver, to positively affect their health.

This is where citicoline comes in. Citicoline’s main job is to increase levels of choline in the brain. This is possible because unlike choline, citicoline easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. 

First developed in Japan for the treatment of stroke and other cerebrovascular disorders, citicoline has been shown to provide many brain health benefits. Several studies show that supplementing with citicoline may improve attention and enhance memory.9,10 

It has even been shown to improve cognitive function in Alzheimer’s patients.11

But not just any form of citicoline will do. Studies show that Citicoline Sodium is the type you should be taking daily.

clinically studied to support mental energy focus and attention

Citicoline Sodium Benefits: Why Is It The Best Form Of Citicoline?

Research shows that the brain-boosting benefits of Citicoline Sodium are many. For instance, studies show that Citicoline Sodium supports focus, attention, and even psychomotor speed. (Psychomotor speed is the speed at which one physically reacts to the signals emitted by the brain in reaction to a stimulus.)

For instance, adolescent males given 250 mg or 500 mg citicoline per day were found to demonstrate significant improvement in attention and an increase in psychomotor speed over those given a placebo.12 

In another study, 60 healthy adult women were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: those given a daily oral dose of 250 mg of citicoline, those given 500 mg of citicoline, or those given a placebo.

At the end of the study, researchers concluded that those women given daily oral doses of citicoline did indeed show an improvement in attention over those given placebos.13

Still, another study showed that citicoline increased brain energy by 14% and increased the speed of brain membrane formation.14

Translation? A sharper, more powerful mental state. 


Citicoline Sodium vs Alpha Gpc

There has been some debate on Citicoline Sodium vs Alpha Gpc for brain health. Which one is better?

Well…like citicoline, Alpha Gpc (L-alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine) is a naturally occurring chemical in the body and is also made in a laboratory for medicinal purposes. Also like citicoline,  Alpha Gpc easily crosses the blood-brain barrier and appears to increase levels of acetylcholine in the brain.15

And Alpha Gpc does deliver a hefty dose of choline to the brain, with clinically proven brain-boosting benefits.16

But as good as Alpha Gpc is, citicoline is even better. You see, Citicoline Sodium has a secret weapon — cytidine. As previously discussed, cytidine is converted to uridine in the body. Uridine is vital for synaptic strength and neural connectivity.

So…the combination of choline and cytidine in Citicoline Sodium makes it a superior brain-boosting supplement, more powerful than just the choline supplied by Alpha Gpc.

Citicoline Sodium Ingredients

The Citicoline Sodium ingredients list is quite simple…it contains just one ingredient — CDP choline (citicoline), a naturally occurring chemical in the body that has been clinically proven to support alertness, focus, and boost brain power. 

However, products that contain citicoline, such as Vitaae, typically add other ingredients to their formulas that have been proven to support brain health. (More about that in a minute.)

Citicoline Sodium Side Effects

As for Citicoline Sodium side effects? Citicoline has been well tolerated in clinical trials, meaning there are few side effects associated with taking this supplement. Some adverse side effects may include headache, gastrointestinal ailments, insomnia, and restlessness.17

the Best Way To Get CDP Choline

As you can see, Citicoline Sodium is simply the best way to get CDP choline (citicoline). That’s because the manufacturer uses a proprietary process that guarantees high product yield and high product purity. 

This proprietary process also makes Citicoline Sodium the most potent form of citicoline in existence, and studies show it supports brain health by providing your brain with the CDP choline it needs for superior cognitive function, i.e. focus, attention, and recall. 

But you must be careful what form of Citicoline Sodium you purchase.   

Citicoline Powder? Not The Best Form

Though you can purchase Citicoline Sodium powder, this is actually not the best or most convenient form. After all, you’d need to mix the powder into a beverage or sprinkle it over food. This takes a lot of time and planning. If you want a quick and easy way to boost your brain function, Citicoline Sodium in capsule form is the way to go. 

What is the Citicoline Sodium dosage?

And what exactly is the most effective Citicoline Sodium dosage amount? Well…250 mg to 500 mg of citicoline has typically been studied in clinical research trials and found to be effective at boosting brain power.

However, most of these studies found no difference in effectiveness between the 250 mg or 500 mg dosage amounts. And there is research that indicates that as little as 50 mg to 100 mg of citicoline can improve memory and boost cognitive function.19

Since Citicoline Sodium is the most potent form, I recommend a minimum dosage of 100 mg per day.

Citicoline Sodium Supplements for Brain Health

But which brand should you choose? This is not an easy decision. There are so many Citicoline supplements on the market today that it can be difficult to find the best one for your brain health needs. Fortunately, I can help.

After studying dozens of brain health supplements, I’ve determined that Vitaae is the best Citicoline Sodium supplement. 

cognizin citicoline

Key studies that show Citicoline’s support on attention and focus:

1. Citicoline’s effect on cellular synthesis and brain energy:

Researchers observed increases in brain activity among middle-aged adults who had taken 500mg of the citicoline for six weeks.

2. Citicoline’s effect on focus and attention:

Citicoline at 250mg per day improves attention and focus in middle-aged women

3. Citicoline’s effect on motor speed and attention in adolescent males:

The research observed an increase in both attention and psychomotor speed in adolescent males after 28 days of citicoline supplementation

Best Citicoline Sodium Supplement: Vitaae

If you’re looking for the best citicoline supplement, Vitaae is the way to go. Vitaae was created with a team of doctors and researchers, ensuring that this product has an effective dosage amount of Citicoline Sodium (100 mg) as well as the most potent forms and combinations of several other clinically proven brain-boosting nutrients. (More about that in a minute.) 

Plus, Vitaae is manufactured right here in the USA in a GMP-designed, FDA-approved facility where quality is assured!

vitaae citicoline

Citicoline Sodium Research: Vitaae is a Powerful Multi-Factor Brain Health Formulation

You’ve already seen the Citicoline Sodium research showing the brain-health benefits of this patented form of citicoline. But Vitaae contains more than just citicoline. Vitaae is a powerful multi-factor brain health formulation, with ingredients clinically proven to support brain health.

Here are just a few of them:

Folate (vitamin B-9): Folate, along with other B vitamins, is needed to convert carbohydrates into energy, produce DNA and RNA, and more.20 And folate has been shown to be crucial for the nervous system of all age groups and may support cognitive function as we age.21

Research shows that folic acid, the synthetic form of folate, affects mood and cognitive function, especially in older people. In fact, folate deficiency is associated with Alzheimer’s disease, poor memory, and psychiatric disorders such as depression.22

Folate is an essential nutrient that the body cannot make. You can obtain folate only through diet or supplementation. But there’s a problem. Folic acid and folate must be converted into 5-MTHF before your body can use them. The enzyme MTHFR is required to do this. Scientists have recently discovered that many of us have polymorphic forms of this enzyme and do not produce adequate or effective MTHFR. 

And even if you don’t suffer from this common genetic issue, folate in food is very unstable and is rapidly lost during processing. For example, leafy vegetables stored at room temperature may lose up to 70% of their folate activity within three days, and cooking these leafy veggies can cause them to lose up to 95% of folate.

By taking Vitaae, you can be sure you get enough folate to support brain health. Vitaae contains an outstanding patented form of folate clinically proven to be 7 times more powerful than folate found in foods or in supplements found on store shelves. 

citicoline benefits

Citicoline sodium:

You’ve already seen the many clinical research studies in this report showing the potency and effectiveness of citicoline. Vitaae contains 100 mg of Citicoline Sodium, a dosage amount shown to produce cognitive improvements. Plus, studies show that folate and citicoline work together synergistically to support brain health

There is strong evidence that a combination of citicoline and folate is necessary for proper cognitive function. For instance, a study from the University of Oslo found that participants with lower blood levels of choline, the precursor to citicoline, had a poor cognitive performance. The researchers then checked folate status and found that if BOTH folate and choline were low then there was TRIPLE the risk for cognitive problems such as forgetfulness, trouble focusing, and brain fog.23

This speaks to the importance of having a synergistic blend of folate and Citicoline Sodium in any brain-boosting supplement — and Vitaae is it!

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)

CoQ10 is an antioxidant that your body produces. It exists in the mitochondria of your cells. CoQ10 sparks energy production in every cell of your body. This is particularly important for the heart and brain, organs that require a massive amount of energy. In fact, low levels of CoQ10 are associated with neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease, and several other conditions.24

Because most people are deficient in CoQ10, the right kind of CoQ10 supplementation is essential for your mental and physical health. The right kind of CoQ10 supplementation must have superior bioavailability, guaranteed absorption, and 24-hour timed release for round-the-clock benefits. 

Vitaae provides all of this. Vitaae contains a superior, highly bioavailable form of CoQ10, with 24-hour timed release to ensure all the energy-producing power of CoQ10 can get right to your cells, where it provides a natural energy boost from the inside out.  


The last nutrient we have time to talk about in this report is L-carnitine, a nutrient that works synergistically with CoQ10 to boost your brain power. L-carnitine is an amino acid that brings fatty acids into your brain and heart cells, and then CoQ10 helps ignite it for energy. (Carnitine is the only molecule in our cells with the ability to move fatty acids into the mitochondria, where it’s used for energy.) Perhaps not surprisingly, studies have shown that combining the right kind of CoQ10 with the right kind of L-carnitine can have dramatically positive effects on the brain and heart.

For instance, research indicates that those of advanced age — even those whose age exceeds 100 — may experience an improvement in cognitive function when taking L-carnitine. Plus, Vitaae contains acetyl-l-carnitine as well, a nutrient that mimics the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Remember what I said earlier about the importance of acetyl-l-carnitine for memory and brain health? Plus, as a bonus, L-carnitine has been shown to promote weight loss! 

You can get L-carnitine through your diet, but unfortunately, most people are chronically low in this nutrient. This could be the reason why memory and recall are such a challenge for so many people — and why taking a daily dose of Vitaae is so important. 

Adding folate, CoQ10, L-carnitine, and citicoline together in Vitaae is simply the best, scientifically proven way to help improve your mental and physical health.  

cognizin ingredients

Vitaae With Citicoline Sodium Reviews

Vitaae with Citicoline Sodium is getting rave reviews from users. Here are just a view of these phenomenal reviews from users of Vitaae:



My mind is working like it did in my forties

Abigale G. – Milwaukee, WI

I started taking this three months ago and after about a month I added to my husband’s pill container without telling him what it was. For me, I genuinely feel like my mind is working like it did in my forties (I’m 71 now). After about four weeks I found out that at my husband’s next doctor’s appointment he asked our doctor if something was “wrong” because of how different he felt.


The one thing that has really helped me

Camilla A. – Newport, VA

At 62 Vitaae is the one thing that has really helped me to have a better attitude, a better outlook and a sharper mind. I feel like I have more energy and have lost 5 pounds already, as I am definitely more active. I have been so disappointed with the mental focus products out there because none have worked until trying Vitaae.


Really top notch

Helen K. – Big Fork, MT

I was a nurse for 30 years. So I pay a lot of attention to what I put into my body, and I am always hesitant about supplements. But I have to say after doing my own in-depth research on the formulation, the ingredients, especially the well studied patented versions, are really top notch.


Brain fog is nearly gone

Terry L. – Orlando, Florida

I just love this! I have been taking it for 2 months now, and my brain fog is nearly gone, I have more energy, I exercise more, and I feel very vibrant all over, not just mentally. And I am down 7 pounds so that is a bonus 🙂

Citicoline Citations & References 

1- American Heart Association. What is brain health? Accessed on the internet October 12, 2020.

2- Morris MC, Wang Y, Barnes LL, Bennett DA, Dawson-Hughes B, Booth SL. Nutrients and bioactives in green leafy vegetables and cognitive decline: Prospective study. Neurology. 2018 Jan 16;90(3):e214-e222. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000004815. Epub 2017 Dec 20. PMID: 29263222; PMCID: PMC5772164.

3- Devore EE, Kang JH, Breteler MM, Grodstein F. Dietary intakes of berries and flavonoids in relation to cognitive decline. Ann Neurol. 2012 Jul;72(1):135-43. doi: 10.1002/ana.23594. Epub 2012 Apr 26. PMID: 22535616; PMCID: PMC3582325.

4- Grieb P. Neuroprotective properties of citicoline: facts, doubts and unresolved issues. CNS Drugs. 2014;28(3):185-193. doi:10.1007/s40263-014-0144-8

5- Wurtman RJ, Cansev M, Sakamoto T, Ulus I. Nutritional modifiers of aging brain function: use of uridine and other phosphatide precursors to increase formation of brain synapses. Nutr Rev. 2010;68 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S88-S101. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00344.x

6- Wurtman RJ, Cansev M, Sakamoto T, Ulus I. Nutritional modifiers of aging brain function: use of uridine and other phosphatide precursors to increase formation of brain synapses. Nutr Rev. 2010;68 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S88-S101. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00344.x

7- Poly C, Massaro JM, Seshadri S, Wolf PA, Cho E, Krall E, Jacques PF, Au R. The relation of dietary choline to cognitive performance and white-matter hyperintensity in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6):1584-91. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.008938. Epub 2011 Nov 9. PMID: 22071706; PMCID: PMC3252552.

8- Poly C, Massaro JM, Seshadri S, Wolf PA, Cho E, Krall E, Jacques PF, Au R. The relation of dietary choline to cognitive performance and white-matter hyperintensity in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6):1584-91. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.008938. Epub 2011 Nov 9. PMID: 22071706; PMCID: PMC3252552.

9- Mcglade E, Locatelli A, Hardy J,  Kamiya T,  Morita M,  Morishita K, Sugimura Y,  Yurgelun-Todd D. Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2012, 3, 769-773. Published Online June 2012.

10- Alvarez XA, Laredo M, Corzo D, Fernández-Novoa L, Mouzo R, Perea JE, Daniele D, Cacabelos R. Citicoline improves memory performance in elderly subjects. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1997 Apr;19(3):201-10. PMID: 9203170.

11- Alvarez XA, Mouzo R, Pichel V, Pérez P, Laredo M, Fernández-Novoa L, Corzo L, Zas R, Alcaraz M, Secades JJ, Lozano R, Cacabelos R. Double-blind placebo-controlled study with citicoline in APOE genotyped Alzheimer’s disease patients. Effects on cognitive performance, brain bioelectrical activity and cerebral perfusion. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Nov;21(9):633-44. PMID: 10669911.

12- McGlade E, Agoston AM, DiMuzio J, Kizaki M, Nakazaki E, Kamiya T, Yurgelun-Todd D. The Effect of Citicoline Supplementation on Motor Speed and Attention in Adolescent Males. J Atten Disord. 2019 Jan;23(2):121-134. doi: 10.1177/1087054715593633. Epub 2015 Jul 15. PMID: 26179181.

13-  Mcglade E, Locatelli A, Hardy J,  Kamiya T,  Morita M,  Morishita K, Sugimura Y,  Yurgelun-Todd D. Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2012, 3, 769-773. Published Online June 2012.

14- Silver MM, Dikan J, Ross AJ, Jensen JE, Kamiya T, Kawada Y, Renshaw PF,  Yurgelun-Todd DA. Cognizin® Citicoline Increases Brain Energy (ATP) by 14% and Speeds up Formation of Brain Membranes by 26% in Healthy Adults. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego California.

15- WebMd. ALPHA-GPC. Accessed via internet on October 12, 2020.

16- Parnettia L, Amenta F. Gallai V. Choline alphoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: an analysis of published clinical data. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. Volume 122, Issue 16, November 2001, Pages 2041-2055.

17- WebMD. Citicoline. Accessed via the internet on October 12, 2020.

18- Supplements in Review. Cognizin®. Editor. Published August 21, 2017.

19- Safavi M, Hosseini-Sharifabad A, Seyed-Yousefi Y, Rabbani M. Protective Effects of Citicoline and Benfotiamine Each Alone and in Combination on Streptozotocin-induced Memory Impairment in Mice. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci. 2020 Feb 29;18(1):81-92. doi: 10.9758/cpn.2020.18.1.81. PMID: 31958909; PMCID: PMC7006985.

20- Ware M. Why is folate good for you? MedicalNewsToday. Medically reviewed by Natalie Olsen, R.D., L.D., ACSM EP-C.

21- Reynolds EH. Folic acid, ageing, depression, and dementia. BMJ (Clinical Research ed.). 2002 Jun;324(7352):1512-1515. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.324.7352.1512.

22- Reynolds EH. Folic acid, ageing, depression, and dementia. BMJ (Clinical Research ed.). 2002 Jun;324(7352):1512-1515. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.324.7352.1512.

23- Nurk E, Refsum H, Bjelland I, Drevon CA, Tell GS, Ueland PM, Vollset SE, Engedal K,  Nygaard HA, Smith D. Plasma free choline, betaine and cognitive performance: the Hordaland Health Study. British Journal of Nutrition. 2012 May. Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

24- Zozina VI, Covantev S, Goroshko OA, Krasnykh LM, Kukes VG. Coenzyme Q10 in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases: Current State of the Problem. Curr Cardiol Rev. 2018;14(3):164-174. doi: 10.2174/1573403X14666180416115428. PMID: 29663894; PMCID: PMC6131403.

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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